Inner tube water polo

Inner tube water polo is a style of water polo in which players, excluding the goalkeeper, are required to float in inner tubes. By floating in an inner tube players expend less energy than traditional water polo players, not having to tread water. This allows casual players to enjoy water polo without undertaking the intense conditioning required for conventional water polo. Surf polo, another variation of water polo, is played on surfboards.[30] First played on the beaches of Waikiki in Hawaii in the 1930s and 1940s, it is credited to Louis Kahanamoku, Duke Kahanamoku's brother. Canoe polo or kayak polo is one of the eight disciplines of canoeing pursued in the UK, known simply as "polo" by its aficionados. Polo combines paddling and ball handling skills with a contact team game, where tactics and positional play are as important as the speed and fitness of the individual athletes. There is no governing body or official rules, but the following details have been derived from a combination of and the NYC Social Sports Club’s rules and instructions. [edit]Team Requirements A team consists of 6 players (5 + a goalie, or 6 attackers if goalie is ‘pulled’), but may play with a minimum of 4 players. Each team must have a minimum of two men and two women playing at all times. [edit]Equipment Inner tubes – these may be true inner tubes from tires or more pedestrian ones found at any store that sells pool and aquatic toys. Nets – These should be the same as water polo nets. Ball – These should be the same as water polo balls. [edit]Game Length There are two halves, 20 minutes each. The clock runs continuously. Teams will change sid s at half-time. All ties at the end of playing time will be broken by a shootout. [edit]Play Area - Side lines The court is the rectangle formed by the pool walls and (if smaller than full pool) lane lines. A ball is considered in-bounds until it makes contact with the pool deck or pool surface outside the boundary area. The ball changes possession when it goes out-of-bounds. A player may make a play on a ball outside the play court as long as The ball is in the air, The player's tube is in-bounds, and The player remains in their tube. Any shot or pass that ricochets off a diving board, backstroke flags or other pool equipment within the court boundary and lands in-bounds is a live ball. [edit]Start of Play To start each half, and after each goal, both teams line up at opposite ends of the pool. All players must be in contact with the wall before play begins. The referee throws the ball into the center of the pool while simultaneously blowing the whistle to begin play. On the official's whistle both teams may paddle their tubes toward the ball. Pushing off the wall is legal at start. [edit]Stoppage of Play The referee blowing his/her whistle always signals an immediate stoppage of play and a dead ball. This can be for free throws, fouls, injuries, time-outs, penalties, or any other reason the referee deems necessary. The play stops if the ball travels out-of-bounds for any reason. [edit]Substitutions teams may substitute when: A goal is scored, The play ends because the ball went out-of-bounds, or A time-out is called. A goalie can only be substituted for by someone on the sidelines if the ball is live or by anyone if the ball is dead.